NUMERATION BASES 1)Smarandache prime base: 0,1,10,100,101,1000,1001,10000,10001,10010,10100,100000,100001,1000000, 1000001,1000010,1000100,10000000,10000001,100000000,100000001,100000010, 100000100,1000000000,1000000001,1000000010,1000000100,1000000101,... (Each number n written in the Smarandache prime base.) (Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite base: p = 1, and for k >= 1 p is the k-th prime number.) 0 k He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in the Smarandache prime base as: n ___________ def --- A = (a ... a a ) === \ a p , with all a = 0 or 1, (of course a = 1), n 1 0 (SP) / i i i n --- i=0 in the following way: - if p <= A < p then A = p + r ; n n+1 n 1 - if p <= r < p then r = p + r , m < n; m 1 m+1 1 m 2 and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0. j Therefore, any number may be written as a sum of prime numbers + e, where e = 0 or 1. If we note by p(A) the Smarandache superior part of A (i.e. the largest prime less than or equal to A), then A is written in the Smarandache prime base as: A = p(A) + p(A-p(A)) + p(A-p(A)-p(A-p(A))) + ... . This base is important for partitions with primes. 2)Smarandache square base: 0,1,2,3,10,11,12,13,20,100,101,102,103,110,111,112,1000,1001,1002,1003, 1010,1011,1012,1013,1020,10000,10001,10002,10003,10010,10011,10012,10013, 10020,10100,10101,100000,100001,100002,100003,100010,100011,100012,100013, 100020,100100,100101,100102,100103,100110,100111,100112,101000,101001, 101002,101003,101010,101011,101012,101013,101020,101100,101101,101102, 1000000,... (Each number n written in the Smarandache square base.) (Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite base: for k >= 0 s = k^2.) k He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in the Smarandache square base as: n ___________ def --- A = (a ... a a ) === \ a s , with a = 0 or 1 for i >= 2, n 1 0 (S2) / i i i --- i=0 0 <= a <= 3, 0 <= a <= 2, and of course a = 1, 0 1 n in the following way: - if s <= A < s then A = s + r ; n n+1 n 1 - if s <= r < p then r = s + r , m < n; m 1 m+1 1 m 2 and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0. j Therefore, any number may be written as a sum of squares (1 not counted as a square -- being obvious) + e, where e = 0, 1, or 3. If we note by s(A) the Smarandache superior square part of A (i.e. the largest square less than or equal to A), then A is written in the Smarandache square base as: A = s(A) + s(A-s(A)) + s(A-s(A)-s(A-s(A))) + ... . This base is important for partitions with squares. 3)Smarandache m-power base (generalization): (Each number n written in the Smarandache m-power base, where m is an integer >= 2.) (Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite m-power base: for k >= 0 t = k^m.) k He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in the Smarandache m-power base as: n ___________ def --- A = (a ... a a ) === \ a t , with a = 0 or 1 for i >= m, n 1 0 (SM) / i i i --- i=0 -- -- 0 <= a <= | ((i+2)^m - 1) / (i+1)^m | (integer part) i -- -- for i = 0, 1, ..., m-1, a = 0 or 1 for i >= m, and of course a = 1, i n in the following way: - if t <= A < t then A = t + r ; n n+1 n 1 - if t <= r < t then r = t + r , m < n; m 1 m+1 1 m 2 and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0. j Therefore, any number may be written as a sum of m-powers (1 not counted as an m-power -- being obvious) + e, where e = 0, 1, 2, ..., or 2^m-1. If we note by t(A) the Smarandache superior m-power part of A (i.e. the largest m-power less than or equal to A), then A is written in the Smarandache m-power base as: A = t(A) + t(A-t(A)) + t(A-t(A)-t(A-t(A))) + ... This base is important for partitions with m-powers. 4)Smarandache factorial base: 0,1,10,11,20,21,100,101,110,111,120,121,200,201,210,211,220,221,300,301,310, 311,320,321,1000,1001,1010,1011,1020,1021,1100,1101,1110,1111,1120,1121, 1200,... (Each number n written in the Smarandache factorial base.) (Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite base: for k >= 1 f = k!) k He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in the Smarandache square base as: n ___________ def --- A = (a ... a a ) === \ a f , with all a = 0, 1, ..., i for i >= 1. n 2 1 (F) / i i i --- i=1 in the following way: - if f <= A < f then A = f + r ; n n+1 n 1 - if f <= r < f then r = f + r , m < n; m 1 m+1 1 m 2 and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0. j What's very interesting: a = 0 or 1; a = 0, 1, or 2; a = 0, 1, 2, or 3, 1 2 3 and so on... If we note by f(A) the Smarandache superior factorial part of A (i.e. the largest factorial less than or equal to A), then A is written in the Smarandache factorial base as: A = f(A) + f(A-f(A)) + f(A-f(A)-f(A-f(A))) + ... . Rules of addition and subtraction in Smarandache factorial base: foreach digit a we add and substract in base i+1, for i >= 1. i For example, an addition: base 5 4 3 2 --------------- 2 1 0 + 2 2 1 ----------- 1 1 0 1 because: 0+1= 1 (in base 2); 1+2=10 (in base 3), therefore we write 0 and keep 1; 2+2+1=11 (in base 4). Now a subtraction: base 5 4 3 2 --------------- 1 0 0 1 - 3 2 0 --------- = = 1 1 because: 1-0=1 (in base 2); 0-2=? it's not possible (in base 3), go to the next left unit, which is 0 again (in base 4), go again to the next left unit, which is 1 (in base 5), therefore 1001 --> 0401 --> 0331 and then 0331-320=11. Find some rules for multiplication and division. In a general case: if we want to design a base such that any number n ___________ def --- A = (a ... a a ) === \ a b , with all a = 0, 1, ..., t for n 2 1 (B) / i i i i --- i=1 i >= 1, where all t >= 1, then: i this base should be b = 1, b = (t +1) * b for i >= 1. 1 i+1 i i 5)Smarandache generalized base: (Each number n written in the Smarandache generalized base.) (Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite generalized base: 1 = g < g < ... < g < ... .) 0 1 k He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in the Smarandache generalized base as: n ___________ def --- -- -- A = (a ... a a ) === \ a g , with 0 <= a <= | (g - 1) / g | n 1 0 (SG) / i i i -- i+1 i -- --- i=0 (integer part) for i = 0, 1, ..., n, and of course a >= 1, n in the following way: - if g <= A < g then A = g + r ; n n+1 n 1 - if g <= r < g then r = g + r , m < n; m 1 m+1 1 m 2 and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0. j If we note by g(A) the Smarandache superior generalized part of A (i.e. the largest g less than or equal to A), then A is written in the i Smarandache generalized base as: A = g(A) + g(A-g(A)) + g(A-g(A)-g(A-g(A))) + ... This base is important for partitions: the generalized base may be any infinite integer set (primes, squares, cubes, any m-powers, Fibonacci/Lucas numbers, Bernoully numbers, Smarandache sequences, etc.) those partitions are studied. A particular case is when the base verifies: 2g >= g for any i, i i+1 and g = 1, because all coefficients of a written number in this base 0 will be 0 or 1. i-1 Remark: another particular case: if one takes g = p , i = 1, 2, 3, i ..., p an integer >= 2, one gets the representation of a number in the numerical base p {p may be 10 (decimal), 2 (binar), 16 (hexadecimal), etc.}. References: [1] Dumitrescu, C., Seleacu, V., "Some notions and questions in number theory", Xiquan Publ. Hse., Glendale, 1994, Sections #47-51. [2] Grebenikova, Irina, "Some Bases of Numerations", , Vol. 17, No. 3, Issue 105, 1996, p. 588.