NUMERATION BASES
1)Smarandache prime base:
0,1,10,100,101,1000,1001,10000,10001,10010,10100,100000,100001,1000000,
1000001,1000010,1000100,10000000,10000001,100000000,100000001,100000010,
100000100,1000000000,1000000001,1000000010,1000000100,1000000101,...
(Each number n written in the Smarandache prime base.)
(Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite
base: p = 1, and for k >= 1 p is the k-th prime number.)
0 k
He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in
the Smarandache prime base as:
n
___________ def ---
A = (a ... a a ) === \ a p , with all a = 0 or 1, (of course a = 1),
n 1 0 (SP) / i i i n
---
i=0
in the following way:
- if p <= A < p then A = p + r ;
n n+1 n 1
- if p <= r < p then r = p + r , m < n;
m 1 m+1 1 m 2
and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0.
j
Therefore, any number may be written as a sum of prime numbers + e,
where e = 0 or 1.
If we note by p(A) the Smarandache superior part of A (i.e. the largest
prime less than or equal to A), then
A is written in the Smarandache prime base as:
A = p(A) + p(A-p(A)) + p(A-p(A)-p(A-p(A))) + ... .
This base is important for partitions with primes.
2)Smarandache square base:
0,1,2,3,10,11,12,13,20,100,101,102,103,110,111,112,1000,1001,1002,1003,
1010,1011,1012,1013,1020,10000,10001,10002,10003,10010,10011,10012,10013,
10020,10100,10101,100000,100001,100002,100003,100010,100011,100012,100013,
100020,100100,100101,100102,100103,100110,100111,100112,101000,101001,
101002,101003,101010,101011,101012,101013,101020,101100,101101,101102,
1000000,...
(Each number n written in the Smarandache square base.)
(Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite
base: for k >= 0 s = k^2.)
k
He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in
the Smarandache square base as:
n
___________ def ---
A = (a ... a a ) === \ a s , with a = 0 or 1 for i >= 2,
n 1 0 (S2) / i i i
---
i=0
0 <= a <= 3, 0 <= a <= 2, and of course a = 1,
0 1 n
in the following way:
- if s <= A < s then A = s + r ;
n n+1 n 1
- if s <= r < p then r = s + r , m < n;
m 1 m+1 1 m 2
and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0.
j
Therefore, any number may be written as a sum of squares (1 not counted
as a square -- being obvious) + e, where e = 0, 1, or 3.
If we note by s(A) the Smarandache superior square part of A (i.e. the
largest square less than or equal to A), then A is written in the
Smarandache square base as:
A = s(A) + s(A-s(A)) + s(A-s(A)-s(A-s(A))) + ... .
This base is important for partitions with squares.
3)Smarandache m-power base (generalization):
(Each number n written in the Smarandache m-power base,
where m is an integer >= 2.)
(Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite
m-power base: for k >= 0 t = k^m.)
k
He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in
the Smarandache m-power base as:
n
___________ def ---
A = (a ... a a ) === \ a t , with a = 0 or 1 for i >= m,
n 1 0 (SM) / i i i
---
i=0
-- --
0 <= a <= | ((i+2)^m - 1) / (i+1)^m | (integer part)
i -- --
for i = 0, 1, ..., m-1, a = 0 or 1 for i >= m, and of course a = 1,
i n
in the following way:
- if t <= A < t then A = t + r ;
n n+1 n 1
- if t <= r < t then r = t + r , m < n;
m 1 m+1 1 m 2
and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0.
j
Therefore, any number may be written as a sum of m-powers (1 not counted
as an m-power -- being obvious) + e, where e = 0, 1, 2, ..., or 2^m-1.
If we note by t(A) the Smarandache superior m-power part of A (i.e. the
largest m-power less than or equal to A), then A is written in the
Smarandache m-power base as:
A = t(A) + t(A-t(A)) + t(A-t(A)-t(A-t(A))) + ...
This base is important for partitions with m-powers.
4)Smarandache factorial base:
0,1,10,11,20,21,100,101,110,111,120,121,200,201,210,211,220,221,300,301,310,
311,320,321,1000,1001,1010,1011,1020,1021,1100,1101,1110,1111,1120,1121,
1200,...
(Each number n written in the Smarandache factorial base.)
(Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite
base: for k >= 1 f = k!)
k
He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in
the Smarandache square base as:
n
___________ def ---
A = (a ... a a ) === \ a f , with all a = 0, 1, ..., i for i >= 1.
n 2 1 (F) / i i i
---
i=1
in the following way:
- if f <= A < f then A = f + r ;
n n+1 n 1
- if f <= r < f then r = f + r , m < n;
m 1 m+1 1 m 2
and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0.
j
What's very interesting: a = 0 or 1; a = 0, 1, or 2; a = 0, 1, 2, or 3,
1 2 3
and so on...
If we note by f(A) the Smarandache superior factorial part of A (i.e. the
largest factorial less than or equal to A), then A is written in the
Smarandache factorial base as:
A = f(A) + f(A-f(A)) + f(A-f(A)-f(A-f(A))) + ... .
Rules of addition and subtraction in Smarandache factorial base:
foreach digit a we add and substract in base i+1, for i >= 1.
i
For example, an addition:
base 5 4 3 2
---------------
2 1 0 +
2 2 1
-----------
1 1 0 1
because: 0+1= 1 (in base 2);
1+2=10 (in base 3), therefore we write 0 and keep 1;
2+2+1=11 (in base 4).
Now a subtraction:
base 5 4 3 2
---------------
1 0 0 1 -
3 2 0
---------
= = 1 1
because: 1-0=1 (in base 2);
0-2=? it's not possible (in base 3),
go to the next left unit, which is 0 again (in base 4),
go again to the next left unit, which is 1 (in base 5),
therefore 1001 --> 0401 --> 0331
and then 0331-320=11.
Find some rules for multiplication and division.
In a general case:
if we want to design a base such that any number
n
___________ def ---
A = (a ... a a ) === \ a b , with all a = 0, 1, ..., t for
n 2 1 (B) / i i i i
---
i=1
i >= 1, where all t >= 1, then:
i
this base should be
b = 1, b = (t +1) * b for i >= 1.
1 i+1 i i
5)Smarandache generalized base:
(Each number n written in the Smarandache generalized base.)
(Smarandache defined over the set of natural numbers the following infinite
generalized base: 1 = g < g < ... < g < ... .)
0 1 k
He proved that every positive integer A may be uniquely written in
the Smarandache generalized base as:
n
___________ def --- -- --
A = (a ... a a ) === \ a g , with 0 <= a <= | (g - 1) / g |
n 1 0 (SG) / i i i -- i+1 i --
---
i=0
(integer part) for i = 0, 1, ..., n, and of course a >= 1,
n
in the following way:
- if g <= A < g then A = g + r ;
n n+1 n 1
- if g <= r < g then r = g + r , m < n;
m 1 m+1 1 m 2
and so on untill one obtains a rest r = 0.
j
If we note by g(A) the Smarandache superior generalized part of A (i.e. the
largest g less than or equal to A), then A is written in the
i
Smarandache generalized base as:
A = g(A) + g(A-g(A)) + g(A-g(A)-g(A-g(A))) + ...
This base is important for partitions: the generalized base may be any
infinite integer set (primes, squares, cubes, any m-powers, Fibonacci/Lucas
numbers, Bernoully numbers, Smarandache sequences, etc.) those partitions are
studied.
A particular case is when the base verifies: 2g >= g for any i,
i i+1
and g = 1, because all coefficients of a written number in this base
0
will be 0 or 1.
i-1
Remark: another particular case: if one takes g = p , i = 1, 2, 3,
i
..., p an integer >= 2, one gets the representation of a number in the
numerical base p {p may be 10 (decimal), 2 (binar), 16 (hexadecimal),
etc.}.
References:
[1] Dumitrescu, C., Seleacu, V., "Some notions and questions in number
theory", Xiquan Publ. Hse., Glendale, 1994, Sections #47-51.
[2] Grebenikova, Irina, "Some Bases of Numerations", , Vol. 17, No. 3, Issue
105, 1996, p. 588.