NeutroGeometry & AntiGeometry are alternatives and generalizations of the Non-Euclidean Geometries


  • Florentin Smarandache University of New Mexico


Non-Euclidean Geometries, Euclidean Geometry, Lobachevski-Bolyai-Gauss Geometry, Riemannian Geometry, NeutroManifold, AntiManifold, NeutroAlgebra


In this paper we extend the NeutroAlgebra & AntiAlgebra to the geometric spaces, by founding the NeutroGeometry & AntiGeometry.
While the Non-Euclidean Geometries resulted from the total negation of only one specific axiom (Euclid’s Fifth Postulate), the AntiGeometry results from the total negation of any axiom and even of more axioms from any geometric axiomatic system (Euclid’s, Hilbert’s, etc.), and the NeutroAxiom results from the partial negation of one or more axioms [and no total negation of no axiom] from any geometric axiomatic system. Generally, instead of a classical geometric Axiom, one may take any
classical geometric Theorem and transform it by NeutroSophication or AntiSophication into a NeutroTheorem or AntiTheorem in order to construct a NeutroGeometry or AntiGeometry. Therefore, the NeutroGeometry and AntiGeometry are respectively alternatives and generalizations of the NonEuclidean Geometries. In the second part, we recall the evolution from Paradoxism to Neutrosophy, then to NeutroAlgebra & AntiAlgebra, afterwards to NeutroGeometry & AntiGeometry, and in general to NeutroStructure & AntiStructure that naturally arise in any field of knowledge. At the end, we present applications of many NeutroStructures in our real world


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How to Cite

Smarandache, F. . (2021). NeutroGeometry & AntiGeometry are alternatives and generalizations of the Non-Euclidean Geometries. Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, 46, 456-477. Retrieved from