Classes of linguistic paradoxes are introduced with examples and explanations. The general
cases exposed below are modeled on the English language structure in a rigid way. In order
to find nice particular examples of such paradoxes one grammatically adjusts the sentences.

Let <N>, <V>, <A> be some noun, verb, and attribute respectively, and <Non-N>, <Non-V>, <Non-A> respectively their antonyms. For example, if <A> is <small> then <Non-A> is <big> or <large>, etc.

Also let <N'>, <N''>, etc. represent synonyms of <N> or even <N>, and so <V'>, <V''>, etc. or <A'>, <A''>, etc.
Let <NV> represent a noun-ed verb, and <NV'> a synonym, etc.

Then, one defines the following classes of linguistic paradoxes and semi-paradoxes:

      1. <Non-N> is a better <N>.
          <Non-A> is a better <A>.
          <Non-V> is a better <V>.

Not to speak is sometimes a better speech.
Not to complain is a better complain.
Unattractive is sometimes better than attractive.
Slow is sometimes better than fast.
No government is a better government.
A non-ruler is a better ruler.
No news is good news.
Not to stare is sometimes better to look.
Not to love is a better love.
Not to move is sometimes a better move.
Impoliteness is a better politeness.
Not to hear is better than not listening.
No reaction is sometimes the best reaction.
Not to show kindness is a better kindness [welfare].
She is better than herself.
No fight is a better fight [i.e. to fight by non-violent means].

      2. Only <N> is truly a <Non-N>.
          Only <A> is truly a <Non-A>.

Only a rumor is truly a gossip.
Only a fiction is truly a fact.
Only normal is truly not normal.
Nobody is truly a 'somebody'.
Only fiction is truly real.
The friend is the most dangerous hidden enemy.
Only you are truly not you [=you act strangely].
Only mercy can be truly merciless.
If you spit at the sky, it will fall in your face.
Only gentleness is truly wild.

      3. This is so <A>, that it looks <Non-A>.

This is so true, that it looks false!
This is so ripe, that it looks spoilt.
This is so friendly, that it looks hostile.
He seemed so trustworthy, that he looks untrustworthy.
This is so fake, it looks real!
This is so proper, that it looks improper.
This is so beautiful, that it looks unreal.
This is so simple, that it looks difficult.
The story was so real, that it looked fiction.
Can't see the trees for the forest.

      4. There is some <N> which is <A> and <Non-A> at the same time.

There are events which are good and bad at the same time.
There are laws which are good and bad at the same time.
There are some news which are real and wrong at the same time.
There are some insects which are helpful and dangerous at the same time. [like the spider]
There are men who are handsome and ugly at the same time.
There are classes that are fun and boring at the same time.
There are some ministers which are believers and mis-believers at the same time.
There are moments that are sweet and sour.
There are games which are challenged and not competitive at the same time.
Food which are simultaneously hot and cold.
The game was exciting, yet boring [because we were losing].
People are smart and foolish at the same time [i.e., smart at something, and foolish at other thing].

      5. There is some <N> which <V> and really <Non-V> at the same time.

There are people who trick and do not really trick at the same time.
There are some people who play and don't play at the same time.
Some of life's experiences are punishments and rewards at the same time.
Exercise is exhausting but also invigorating.
There are children who listen and do not really listen at the same time.
There are teachers who teach and don't teach at the same time. There are people who spell and misspell at the same time.
Nice and rough people concomitantly.
Politicians who lie and tell the truth all the time!

      6. To <V>, even when <Non-V>.

A sage thinks even when he doesn't think.
I exist when I don't exist.
A clown is funny even when he isn't being funny.
To die of thirst surrounded by water. [saltwater]
To be a poet and not know it.
A mother worries even when she doesn't worry.
To believe even when you don't believe.
Is matching even when not-matching.
I sleep even when I am awake.
Always running around.
To dream, even when not sleeping.

      7. This <N> is enough <Non-N>.

This silence is enough noise.
This vacation from work is hard work.
The superiority brings enough inferiority. [=listlessness]
This day is my night.
This diary is enough non-diary.
This sleep is enough awake.
This sweet truthfulness is enough sarcasm.
This table of four is enough for six people.
I had enough.
This job is enough recreation [when enjoying the job].

      8. <Non-V> sometimes means <V>.

Not to speak sometimes means to speak.
Not to touch sometimes means to touch.
The preserve peace sometimes means going to war.
To destroy life (as in viruses) sometimes means to preserve life.
Not to listen sometimes means to listen.
Two feet forward sometimes means standing still.
Not to litter sometimes means to litter.
Speeding is sometimes not speeding [in case of emergency].
Not to show anger is sometimes to show anger.

      9. <N> without <N>.

Hell without hell.
The style without style.
The rule applied: there were no rule!
Our culture is our lack of culture.
Live without living.
Some people are so afraid of death, that they do not live.
Work without work.
Can't live with them, can't live without them.
Death without death [for a Christian dying is going on to eternal life].
Guilt without guilt [sometimes is guilty but doesn't feel guilty].

      10. a) <N> inside/within the <Non-N>.

Movement inside the immobility.
Silence within the noise.
Slavery within the freedom.
Loneliness within a crowd.
A circle within a circle.
The wrestling ring inside a squared section.
To find wealth in poverty [i.e., happiness and love].

      b) <Non-N> in the <N>.

Immobility inside the movement.
Noise inside the silence.
The eye of the storm.
Government. Bureaucracies.
Inequality inside the equality.
Single inside the marriage.
Anger inside the happiness.
Warmth in the cold.
Cold in the heat.
Laughing without being happy.
Has not gotten anywhere.
Poverty in wealth [no poverty or love in a wealth family].

      11. The <A> of the <Non-A>.

The shadow of the light.
Music of silence.
Relaxing of exercise effect.
The restrictions of the free.
Life through death.
The sound/loudness of the silence.
I can see the light at the of the tunnel.
The slave of freedom [someone who couldn't give up his freedom, not even in marriage].

      12. <V> what one <Non-V>.

To see what one can't see.
To hear what one can't hear.
To taste what one can't taste.
To accept what on can't understand.
To say what one can't say [to tell a secret].
To wait patiently when one doesn't know how to wait.
To breath what one can't breath.
To feel what one can't feel.
To appreciate what one dis-appreciates.
To believe what one can't believe [faith].
To smell what one can't smell.

      13. Let's <V> by <Non-V>.

Let's strike by not striking [=Japanese strike].
Let's talk by not talking; [means to think].
To vote by not voting at all.
To help someone by not helping [using experience as a teacher].
Let's justify by not justifying.
Let's win by not winning.
Let's strip by not stripping [to make bare or clear].
Let's fight by not fighting [Ghandi's Motto].

      14. <N> of the <Non-N>.

The benefits we get from non-benefits.
The smoke we got from non-smokers.
The rewards we get from hard work.
The service we get from non-service.
The god that comes from bad.
The pleasure we get from the pain.

      15. <Non-A> is <A>.

The bad is good [because makes you try harder].
The good is bad [because doesn't leave any room for improvement].
Work is a blessing.
The poor is spiritually rich.
Sometimes ugly is beauty [because beauty is in the eyes of the beholden].
You have to kiss a lot of frogs before you find a prince. Hurt is healing.
"There is no absolute" is an absolute.
Not to commit any error is an error.

      16. A <Non-N> <N>.

A positive negative [which means: a failure enforces you to do better]
A sad happiness.
An impossible possibility.
Genuine imitation leather.
A loud whisper.
A beautiful disaster [which means beauty can be found anywhere].
A bitter sweet.
A harsh gentleness [a gentleness that is very firm with you].
A guiltless sinner [someone who doesn't regret sinning].

      17. Everything has an <A> and a <Non-A>.

Everything has a sense and a non-sense.
Everything has a truthful side and a wrong side.
Everything has a beginning and an ending.
Everything has a birth and a death.
Everything has its time and a non-time.
Everything has an appearance and a non-appearance.
Everything around you resolves and also dissolves.
Everybody has a good side and a bad side.
Everyone has a right and a wrong.

      18. <V> what <Non-V>.

To be what you are not.
One needs what one doesn't need.
Expect the unexpected!
Culture exists by its non-existence.
No matter how rich we are, we never make enough money.
One purchases what one doesn't purchase.
To work when we are not working.
To die might mean to live for ever [= for an artist].
One wants because one doesn't want [sometimes one wants something only because someone else likes it].

      Look at this Funny Law example:
A Paradoxist Government:
  Suppose you have two cows. Then the government kills them and milks you!

  The list of such invented linguistic paradoxes can be indefinitely extended. It is specific to each language, and it is based on language expressions and types of sentence and phrase constructions and structures.
  One can also play with antonymic adverbs, prepositions, etc. to construct other categories of linguistic paradoxes.


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