A Smarandache Strong-Weak Structure on a set S means a structure on S that has two proper subsets: P with a stronger structure, and Q with a weaker structure.

By proper subset of a set S, we mean a subset P of S, different from the empty set, from the original set S, and from the idempotent elements if any.

In any field, a Smarandache strong-weak n-structure on a set S means a structure {w0} on S such that there exist two chains of proper subsets Pn-1 < Pn-2 < < P2 < P1 < S and Qn-1 < Qn-2 < < Q2 < Q1 < S, where '<' means 'included in', whose corresponding stronger structures verify the chain {wn-1} > {wn-2} > … > {w2} > {w1} > {w0} and respectively the weaker structures verify the chain {vn-1} < {vn-2} < … < {v2} < {v1} < {v0}, where '>' signifies 'strictly stronger' (i.e. structure satisfying more axioms) and '<' signifies 'strictly weaker' (i.e. structure satisfying less axioms).

And by structure on S we mean a structure {w} on S under the given operation(s).

As a particular case, a Smarandache strong-weak 2-structure (two levels only of structures in algebra) on a set S, is a structure {w0} on S such that there exist two proper subsets P and Q of S, where P is embedded with a stronger structure than {w0}, while Q is embedded with a weaker structure than {w0}.

For example, a Smarandache strong-weak monoid is a monoid that has a proper subset which is a group, and another proper set which is a semigroup.

Also, a Smarandache strong-weak ring is a ring that has a proper subset which is a field, and another proper subset which is a near-ring.

Article: