Applications of Plausible, Paradoxical, and Neutrosophic Reasoning for Information Fusion


The sixth International Conference on Information Fusion

FUSION 2003  -   8-11 July 2003

Radisson Hotel, Cairns, Queensland, Australia


Chair: Dr. Jean Dezert                          Co-Chair: Prof. Florentin Smarandache

ONERA                                                  Department of Mathematics

29 Avenue de la Division Leclerc         University of New Mexico

92320 Châtillon, France                         Gallup, NM 87301, USA

Email:                Email:



1) Applications of Neutrosophic Logic in Information Fusion

2) Generalization of Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence to DSm Theory


Session Description: 


The processing of uncertain information has always been a hot topic of research since the 18th century and deep theoretical advances have been obtained for the theory of probability theory and statistics.  During the second half of the 20th century, several new and interesting mathematical theories have emerged in parallel with the development of computer science and technology in order to combine many types of information (fuzzy, uncertain, imprecise, etc.) provided by different sources (human expertise, sensor measurements, AI expert systems, neural network, quantum theory, economics predictions).  The problem of combination of such diverse information is very difficult and is great challenge for all researchers working in this field.  The information fusion is very important in many fields of applications and particularly in all modern defense systems.  Up to now, the principal theories available for data fusion are the axiomatic probability theory (Kolmogorov 1933), the fuzzy set theory (Zadeh 1965), the possibility theory (Dubois and Prade 1985) and the theory of evidence developed by G. Shafer in 1976. 


Only recently, in 1995, Dr. Smarandache has introduced in philosophy the notion of 'neutrosophy', as a generalization of Hegel's dialectic, which is the basement of his researches in mathematics and economics, such as 'neutrosophic logic', 'neutrosophic set', 'neutrosophic probability', and 'neutrosophic statistics' (1995-2002).  Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.  Neutrosophic Logic is a logic in which each proposition is estimated to have the percentage of truth in a subset T, the percentage of indeterminacy in a subset I, and the percentage of falsity in a subset F, where T, I, F are standard or non-standard intervals included in  ]-0, 1+[.  There is no boundary restriction on sup(T)+sup(I)+sup(F), neither on inf(T)+inf(I)+inf(F), which leave room for the fusion of incomplete and respectively paraconsistent  information too.  Dr. Smarandache also defined the neutrosophic logic connectors.  Neutrosophic Logic is a generalization of the fuzzy logic (especially of IFL), intuitionistic logic (which supports incomplete theories), paraconsistent  logic (which deals with paraconsistent  information), dialetheism (which says that some contradictions are true), faillibilism (which asserts that uncertainty/indeterminacy belongs to every proposition), etc. and tries to unify all existing logics in a common mathematical framework.  In neutrosophic logic it is possible to characterize contradictions, antitheses, antinomies, paradoxes (while in the fuzzy logic it was not), and to distinguish between relative, and respectively, absolute truth. Similarly, Dr. Smarandache proposed an extension of the classical probability and the imprecise probability to the 'neutrosophic probability', that he defined as a tridimensional vector whose components are subsets of the non-standard interval ]-0, 1+[. Also, he generalized the fuzzy set to the 'neutrosophic set' (and its derivatives: 'intuitionistic set', 'paraconsistent set', 'dialetheist set', 'paradoxist set', 'tautological set') and defined the neutrosophic set operators.


In parallel, Dr. Jean Dezert has developed a new theory for plausible and paradoxical reasoning that can be interpreted as a generalization of the Dempster-Shafer Theory. The neutrosophical information processing can be regarded as a prelude to the plausible and paradoxical inference developed in the DSmT, acronym for Dezert-Smarandache Theory - as called by researchers.  It has been recently proved that the DSmT is able to correctly solve many problems where the classical Dempster-Shafer theory fails.  The main idea of the DSmT is basically not to accept the third exclude principle and to deal directly in the formalism with the possible paradoxical, inconsistent (and even incomplete or redundant) nature of the information.  Doing this, the DSmT allows us to get easily results without approximations or requirement of heuristics for combining any sources of information (even for those appearing as in full contradiction).  Details about neutrosophic logic and DSmT can be found in following free e-books available at:



The best source about DSmT is Dr. Jean Dezert's article "Foundations for A New Theory of Plausible and Paradoxical Reasoning", to appear in "Information and Security Journal", An International Journal, Edited by Tzvetan Semerdjiev, CLPP, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sophia, Nov. 2002 (

Potential authors can also ask organizers for additional references.


The goal of this session is to present and discuss theoretical advances in neutrosophic logic and DSmT, together with applications in information fusion.  The session will focus on fundamental aspects of processing of uncertain and paradoxical information, architecture of intelligent hybrid systems, and applications of DSmT to solution of military as well as non-military problems.  Authors are encouraged to submit their questions and contributions for this session (LaTeX, ps, pdf, or MS Word files) directly to organizers through email at  and  The contributed papers have to be ready for print by May 15, 2003, in order to meet the printing schedule (see All submitted papers must follow the paper guidelines given at

Abstracts of papers can be submitted to which is a web site at York University, Canada, and viewed at

Deadline for submission of full papers was: May 15th, 2003.

Invited Speakers: M. Khoshnevisan, S. Bhattacharya, F. Liu, J. Brenner, etc.

Abstracts of papers accepted to this special session

Papers published in the "Proceedings of The sixth International Conference on Information Fusion", Australia, 2003: