**
**

Scientist, writer, and artist. Wrote in four languages: English,
Romanian, French, and
Spanish.

He did post-doctoral researches at Okayama University of Science (Japan)
(2013-2014); at Guangdong University of
Technology (Guangzhou, China), 19 May - 14 August 2012; at ENSIETA
(National Superior School of Engineers and Study of Armament), Brest,
France, 15 May - 22 July 2010; and for two months, June-July 2009, at
Air Force Research Laboratory in Rome, NY, USA (under State University
of New York Institute of Technology).

**
Graduated from the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the
University of Craiova in 1979 first of his class graduates, earned a Ph.
D. in Mathematics from the State University Moldova at Kishinev in 1997,
and continued postdoctoral studies at various American Universities and
Research Institutions, such
as University of Texas at Austin, University of Phoenix, Arizona State
University, New Mexico State University at Las Cruces, Los Alamos
National Laboratory etc. after
emigration.**

**
In U.S. he worked as a software engineer for Honeywell (1990-1995),
adjunct professor for Pima Community College (1995-1997), in 1997
Assistant Professor at the University of New Mexico, Gallup Campus,
promoted to Associate Professor of Mathematics in 2003, and to Full
Professor in 2008.**

Between 2007-2009 he was the Chair of Math &
Sciences Department.

In mathematics he introduced the degree of negation of an axiom or
theorem in geometry (see the Smarandache
geometries which can be partially Euclidean and partially non-Euclidean,
1969,
http://fs.unm.edu/Geometries.htm), the multi-structure (see
the Smarandache n-structures, where a weak
structure contains an island of a stronger structure,
http://fs.unm.edu/Algebra.htm), and multi-space (a
combination of heterogeneous spaces) [http://fs.unm.edu/Multispace.htm].

He created and studied in number theory many:

sequences (
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SmarandacheSequences.html,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ConsecutiveNumberSequences.html
**
),
**

functions
(
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SmarandacheFunction.html,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SmarandacheCeilFunction.html,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Smarandache-KurepaFunction.html,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Smarandache-WagstaffFunction.html,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SmarandacheNear-to-PrimorialFunction.html,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PseudosmarandacheFunction.html ),

numbers (
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SmarandacheNumber.html,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Smarandache-WellinNumber.html ),

prime numbers (
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SmarandachePrime.html,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Smarandache-WellinPrime.html ),

and
constants (
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SmarandacheConstants.html ).

**He
generalized [1995] the fuzzy, intuitive,
paraconsistent, multi-valent,
dialetheist logics to the 'neutrosophic
logic' (also in the Denis Howe's Dictionary of Computing, England) and,
similarly, he generalized the fuzzy set to the 'neutrosophic
set' (and its derivatives: 'paraconsistent
set', 'intuitionistic set', 'dialethist
set', 'paradoxist set', 'tautological set')
[
http://fs.unm.edu/eBook-Neutrosophics6.pdf ]. **

**He coined the
words "neutrosophy" [(**French *
neutre *< Latin *neuter*, neutral, and Greek *sophia*,
skill/wisdom) means knowledge of neutral thought**]
and its derivatives: neutrosophic, neutrosophication, neutrosophicator,
deneutrosophication, deneutrosophicator, etc.**

**In 2003
together with W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy he introduced the Neutrosophic
Algebraic Structures, based on sets of Neutrosophic Numbers [ i.e.
numbers of the form a+bI, where a, b are real or complex numbers, and I
= Indeterminacy, with I^n = I for n positive non-null integer, 0I = I,
I/I = undefined, and nI+mI = (n+m)I ].**

In 2006 he introduced the degree of dependence/independence between the
neutrosophic components T, I, F.

In 2007 he
extended the neutrosophic set *
***to Neutrosophic Overset
(when some neutrosophic component is > 1), and to Neutrosophic Underset
(when some neutrosophic component is < 0), and to Neutrosophic Offset
(when some neutrosophic components are off the interval [0, 1], i.e. some
neutrosophic component > 1 and some neutrosophic component < 0). **
Then, similar extensions to respectively Neutrosophic Over/Under/Off Logic, Measure,
Probability, Statistics etc.** http://fs.unm.edu/NeutrosophicOversetUndersetOffset.pdf**

*
Then, introduced the *
**
***Neutrosophic Tripolar Set *and*
Neutrosophic Multipolar Set, also *
*the Neutrosophic Tripolar Graph *and* Neutrosophic
Multipolar Graph.*

**He then
generalized the Neutrosophic Logic/Set/Probability to **__Refined__
Neutrosophic Logic/Set/Probability [2013], where T can be split into
subcomponents T_{1}, T_{2}, ..., T_{p}, and I
into I_{1}, I_{2}, ..., I_{r}, and F into F_{1},
F_{2}, ..., F_{s}, where p+r+s = n ≥ 1. Even more: T,
I, and/or F (or any of their subcomponents T_{j ,}I_{k},
and/or F_{l}) could be countable or uncountable infinite sets: **http://fs.unm.edu/n-ValuedNeutrosophicLogic-PiP.pdf
.**

**In 2015 he refined the indeterminacy ***"I", *within the
neutrosophic algebraic structures, into different types of
indeterminacies (depending on the problem to solve), such as *I*_{1},
I_{2}, , I_{p} with integer *p ≥ 1,* and
obtained the *refined neutrosophic numbers* of the form *N*_{p}
= *a+b*_{1}I_{1}+b_{2}I_{2}+ +b_{p}I_{p}
where *a, b*_{1}, b_{2}, , b_{p} are real
or complex numbers, and *a* is called the __determinate part__
of *N*_{p}, while for each *k**
in
{1, 2, , p}*
*I*_{k} is called the __k-____th indeterminate
part__ of *N*_{p}.

**Then consequently he extended the neutrosophic algebraic structures
to Refined Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures [or Refined Neutrosophic
I-Algebraic Structures] (2015), which are algebraic structures based on
sets of the refined neutrosophic numbers ***a+b*_{1}I_{1}+b_{2}I_{2}+
+b_{p}I_{p}.

**He introduced
the (T, I, F)-Neutrosophic Structures [2015]. **
**In any field of knowledge, each structure is composed from two parts:
a space, and a set of axioms (or laws) acting (governing) on it. If the
space, or at least one of its axioms (laws), has some indeterminacy,
that structure is a ***(T, I, F)-*Neutrosophic Structure.
** And
he extended them to the ***(T, I, F)-Neutrosophic I-Algebraic Structures
*[2015], i.e. algebraic structures based on neutrosophic numbers of
the form *a+bI*, but also having indeterminacy related to the
structure space (elements which only partially belong to the space, or
elements we know nothing if they belong to the space or not) or
indeterminacy related to at least an axiom (or law) acting on the
structure space.
Then he extended them to *Refined (T, I, F)-Neutrosophic Refined
I-Algebraic Structures.*

Together with
A. Salama he introduced in 2015 the neutrosophic crisp set and
neutrosophic crisp topology [
http://fs.unm.edu/NeutrosophicCrispSetTheory.pdf
].

In 2014 he
founded together with Mumtaz Ali the Neutrosophic Triplet and
introduced the neutrosophic triplet algebraic structures [
http://fs.unm.edu/NeutrosophicTriplets.htm ].

**
In 2015 he
introduced the Thesis-Antithesis-Neutrothesis, and Neutrosynthesis,
Neutrosophic Axiomatic System, neutrosophic dynamic systems, symbolic
neutrosophic logic, (t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Structures, I-Neutrosophic
Structures, Refined Literal Indeterminacy, Quadruple Neutrosophic
Algebraic Structures, Multiplication Law of Subindeterminacies:**

[
http://fs.unm.edu/SymbolicNeutrosophicTheory.pdf
].

In 2016 he
founded the Neutrosophic Duplets [
http://fs.unm.edu/NeutrosophicDuplets.htm ] and then the
Neutrosophic Multisets [
http://fs.unm.edu/NeutrosophicMultisets.htm ].

**In 2017 he introduced the Plithogeny
(extension of Dialectics and Neutrosophy), and the Plithogenic Set/Logic/Probability/Statistics (extension of fuzzy, intuitionistic fuzzy, neutrosophic set/logic/probability/statistics)
[ ****
http://fs.unm.edu/Plithogeny.pdf ].**

Together with
A. R. Vatuiu he enunciated the Law that *it is easier to break from
inside than from outside* *a neutrosophic dynamic system *in
2017* *[
http://fs.unm.edu/EasierMaiUsor.pdf ], and the theory of *spiral
neutrosophic human evolution* in 2019 [
**
http://fs.unm.edu/SpiralNeutrosophicEvolution.pdf**
].

**Then he extended in 2018 the Soft Set to
Hypersoft Set [
http://fs.unm.edu/NSS/ExtensionOfSoftSetToHypersoftSet.pdf ].
**

**
In 2019 & 2020 **
he generalized
the classical Algebraic Structures to NeutroAlgebraic Structures (or
NeutroAlgebras) **{whose
operations and
axioms are partially true, partially indeterminate, and partially false} as
extensions of Partial Algebra, and to AntiAlgebraic Structures (or AntiAlgebras)
{whose operations and axioms are totally false}. **
And, in general, he extended any classical Structure, in no matter what
field of knowledge, to a NeutroStructure and an AntiStructure**:
[ http://fs.unm.edu/NeutroAlgebra.pdf
]. And he introduced in 2020 the n-SuperHyperGraph, with super-vertices and hyper-edges {defined
on power-set of power-set...}, and n-HyperAlgebra
[
http://fs.unm.edu/NSS/n-SuperHyperGraph-n-HyperAlgebra.pdf ].**

**
Also, he proposed an extension of the classical probability and the
imprecise probability to the 'neutrosophic
probability' [1995], that he defined as a tridimensional vector whose
components are real subsets of the non-standard
interval ]-0, 1+[, introduced the neutrosophic measure and
neutrosophic integral [
http://fs.unm.edu/NeutrosophicMeasureIntegralProbability.pdf
],**

and also extended the classical statistics to neutrosophic statistics [
http://fs.unm.edu/NeutrosophicStatistics.pdf ].

**
He extended the Analytical Hierarchy Process
(AHP) to **
α-Discounting
Method for Multi-Criteria

Decision Making
(α-D
MCDC)
[ **
http://fs.unm.edu/alpha-DiscountingMCDM-book.pdf**
].

**Since 2002, together with Dr. Jean Dezert
from Office National de Recherches
Aeronautiques in Paris, worked in
information fusion and generalized the Dempster-Shafer
Theory to a new theory of plausible and paradoxist
fusion (Dezert-Smarandache Theory):
http://fs.unm.edu/DSmT.htm .**

In 2004 he designed an algorithm for the Unification of Fusion Theories
and rules (UFT) used in bioinformatics, robotics, military.

**
In biology he introduced in 2017 the Theory of Neutrosophic Evolution:
Degrees of Evolution, Indeterminacy, and Involution [
http://fs.unm.edu/neutrosophic-evolution-PP-49-13.pdf ].**

In physics he found a series of paradoxes (see the quantum
smarandache paradoxes), and considered the
possibility of a third form of matter, called
unmatter [2004], which is a combination of matter and antimatter
- presented at Caltech (American Physical Society Annual Meeting, 2010)
and Institute of Atomic Physics (Magurele,
Romania 2011) [
http://fs.unm.edu/unmatter.htm ].

**
Based on a 1972 manuscript, when he was a student in Rm.
Valcea, he published in 1982 the hypothesis
that 'there is no speed barrier in the universe and one can construct
any speed', (
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/SmarandacheHypothesis.html
). This hypothesis was partially validated on September 22, 2011, when
researchers at CERN experimentally proved that the
muon neutrino particles travel with a speed greater than the
speed of light. **

Upon his hypothesis he proposed an Absolute Theory of Relativity [free
of time dilation, space contraction, relativistic
simultaneities and relativistic paradoxes which look alike science
fiction not fact]. Then he extended his research to a more diversified
Parameterized Special Theory of Relativity (1982):
http://fs.unm.edu/ParameterizedSTR.pdf and generalized the
Lorentz Contraction Factor to the Oblique-Contraction Factor for lengths
moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction, then he
found the Angle-Distortion Equations (1983):
http://fs.unm.edu/NewRelativisticParadoxes.pdf .

He considered that the speed of light in vacuum is variable, depending
on the moving reference frame; that space and time are separated
entities; also the __redshift__ and __blueshift__
are not entirely due to the Doppler Effect, but also to the Medium
Gradient and Refraction Index (which are determined by the medium
composition: i.e. its physical elements, fields, density, heterogeneity,
properties, etc.); and that the space is not curved and the light near
massive cosmic bodies bends not because of the gravity only as the
General Theory of Relativity asserts (Gravitational Lensing), but
because of the Medium Lensing.

In order to make the distinction between clock
and time
, he
suggested a *first experiment* with different __clock types__
for the GPS clocks, for proving that the resulted dilation and
contraction factors are different from those obtained with the cesium
atomic clock; and a *second experiment* with different medium
compositions for proving that different degrees of redshifts/blushifts
and different degrees of medium lensing would result.

**He
introduced the superluminal and instantaneous physics (domains that
study the physical laws at superluminal and respectively instantaneous
velocities), and the neutrosophic physics
that describes
collections of objects or states that are individually characterized by
opposite properties, or are characterized neither by a property nor by
the opposite of the property. Such objects or states are called
neutrosophic entities [
http://fs.unm.edu/SuperluminalPhysics.htm ].**

**
In philosophy he introduced in 1995 the 'neutrosophy',
as a generalization of Hegel's dialectic, which is the basement of his
researches in mathematics and economics, such as 'neutrosophic
logic', 'neutrosophic set', 'neutrosophic
probability', 'neutrosophic statistics'.**

Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy
that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as
their interactions with different ideational spectra. This theory
considers every notion or idea <A> together with its opposite or
negation <Anti-A> and the spectrum of "neutralities" <Neut-A>
(i.e. notions or ideas located between the two extremes, supporting
neither <A> nor <Anti-A>). The <Neut-A> and
<Anti-A> ideas together are referred to as <Non-A>. According to this
theory every idea <A> tends to be neutralized and balanced by <Anti-A>
and <Non-A> ideas - as a state of equilibrium. As a
consequence, he generalized the triad thesis-antithesis-synthesis to the
tetrad thesis-antithesis-neutrothesis-neutrosynthesis [
http://fs.unm.edu/neutrosophy.htm ].

**He extended th****e
***Law of* *Included Middle* [<A>, <nonA>,
and a third value <T> which resolves their contradiction at another
level of reality] to the *Law of Included Multiple-Middle* [<A>, <antiA>,
and <neutA>, where <neutA> is split into a multitude of neutralities
between <A> and <antiA>, such as <neut_{1}A>, <neut_{2}A>,
etc.]. The <neutA> value (i.e. neutrality or indeterminacy related to
<A>) actually comprises the included middle value. **
Also****,
he extended the ***Principle of Dynamic Opposition* [opposition
between <A> and <antiA>] to the *Principle of Dynamic Neutrosophic
Opposition* [which means oppositions among <A>, <antiA>, and <neutA>];
[
http://fs.unm.edu/LawIncludedMultiple-Middle.pdf ].

In psychology he introduced (
http://fs.unm.edu/NeutropsychicPersonality-ed3.pdf ):

__Neutropsychic Personality__
that is a neutrosophic dynamic open psychological system of tendencies
to feel, think, and act specific to each individual.

__Neutrosophic Refined Memory__**:
that restructured the division of memory into: ***consciousness*, *
aconsciousness* (which we introduce as a blend of *consciousness*
and *unconsciousness*), and *unconsciousness*. *Aconscious*
was further subdivided into *preconscious, subconscious, semiconscious
= semiunconscious, subunconscious,* and *preunconscious*. All
memories have degrees of conscious (c), acounscious (a), and unconscious
(u).

*
Refined Neutrosophic antiTrait –Trait Diagram*, that* *
each individual has a *degree of
antiTrait* and a *degree of Trait* with respect to each
antiTrait-Trait personality pair.

And the *
Neutrosophic
Temperament*.

** Some
contributions to sociology [
http://fs.unm.edu/sociology.htm ], and introduction to
NeutroSociology [
http://fs.unm.edu/NeutroSociology.pdf ] that is the study of
sociology using indeterminate data {each society has degrees of
democracy, neutrality, and antidemocracy}.**

Invited to lecture at University of Berkeley (2003), NASA Langley
Research Center-USA (2004), NATO Advance Study Institute-Bulgaria
(2005), Jadavpur University-India (2004),
Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics-Russia (2005),
Bloomsburg University-USA (1995), University
Sekolah Tinggi
Informatika & Komputer Indonesia-Malang
and University Kristen Satya
Wacana Salatiga-Indonesia
(2006), Minufiya University (Shebin
Elkom)-Egypt (2007), Air Force Institute of
Technology Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton [Ohio, USA] (2009),
Universitatea din Craiova -
Facultatea de Mecanica
[Romania] (2009), Air Force Research Lab & Griffiss
Institute [Rome, NY, USA] (2009), COGIS 2009 (Paris, France), ENSIETA
(Brest, Franta) - 2010, Romanian Academy -
Institute of Solid Mechanics and Commission of Acoustics (Bucharest -
2011), Guangdong University of Technology (Guangzhou, China) - 2012,
Okayama University of Sciences (Japan) - 2013, Osaka University (Japan)
- 2014,
Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (Argentina) - 2014, **
Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) -
2014, Univ. Transilvania Brasov - 2015; Vietnam National University,
**
Le Quy Don Technical University **
(Hanoi) and Hanoi University, also
**
Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH) and **
Nguyen Tat Thanh University (Ho Chi Minh City) - 2016,
Universidad de Guayaquil (Ecuador) - 2016, Universidad Nacional de
Colombia (Bogota - 2019), etc. **

Presented papers at many Sensor or Information Fusion International
Conferences {Australia - 2003, Sweden - 2004, USA (Philadelphia - 2005,
Seattle - 2009, Chicago - 2011, Washington DC - 2015), Spain (Barcelona
- 2005, Salamanca - 2014), Italy - 2006, Belgium - 2007, Canada -2007,
Germany (Cologne - 2008, Heidelberg - 2016), Scotland- 2010, Singapore - 2012, Turkey - 2013}.

**
Presented papers at IEEE GrComp
International Conferences (Georgia State University at Atlanta - 2006, Kaohsiung National University in Taiwan - 2011), International
Conference on Advanced Mechatronic Systems (Tokyo University of
Agriculture and Technology, Japan) - 2012, **
IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence (Vancouver, Canada,
2016), Federal University of Agriculture - Abeokuta & University of
Ibadan & University of Lagos (Nigeria, 2017)**,
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (Abbottabad, Pakistan;
2017), Jeju National University (S. Korea, 2018), Universidad Abrieda
Para Adultos (Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic, 2018),
King Abdulaziz University (Jeddad, Saudi Arabia, 2018), Universidad de
Los Andes & Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogota, Colombia, 2019),
Universidad Industrial de Santander (Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2019).**

**Participated to the
training in Rabat of the Moroccan Student Team for the 1983
International Olympiad of Mathematics (Paris, France).**

He received the 2011 Romanian Academy "Traian
Vuia" Award for Technical Science (the
highest in the country); *Doctor Honoris
Causa* of Academia
DacoRomana from Bucharest - 2011, and *Doctor
Honoris Causa
*of Beijing Jiaotong University (one of
the highest technical universities of China) - 2011;

the 2012 New Mexico - Arizona Book Award & 2011 New Mexico Book Award at
the category Science & Math (for Algebraic Structures, together with Dr.
W. B. Vasantha
Kandasamy) on 18 November 2011 in Albuquerque; also, the Gold
Medal from the Telesio-Galilei Academy of
Science from England in 2010 at the University of
Pecs - Hungary (for the Smarandache
Hypothesis in physics, and for the Neutrosophic
Logic), and the Outstanding Professional Service and Scholarship from
The University of New Mexico - Gallup (2009, 2005, 2001).

**
Very prolific, he is the author, co-author, editor, and co-editor of 180
books published by about forty publishing houses (such as university and
college presses, professional scientific and literary presses, such as
Springer Verlag (in print), Univ. of
Kishinev Press, Pima College Press, ZayuPress,
Haiku, etc.) in ten countries and in many languages, and 650 scientific
articles and notes, and contributed to over 100 literary and 100
scientific journals from around the world.**

**
He published many articles on international journals, such as:
Neural Computing and Applications (Springer), Applied
Intelligence (Springer), Fuzzy Sets and Systems (Elsevier),
**
Applied Soft Computing,
Journal of Medical Systems, **International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based
Systems (World Scientific), Bulletin of the Research Institute
of Technology (Okayama University of Science, Japan), Symmetry (MDPI),
Algorithms, Measurement (Elsevier),
Design Automation for Embedded Systems, International Journal of Applied
Management Science, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, Advances in
Intelligent Systems and Computing, ***
Cognitive Systems Research, Granular Computing, *
Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems,
Multiple-Valued Logic - An
International Journal (now called Multiple-Valued Logic & Soft
Computing) (UK & USA),
Informatica (Vilnius University*), *International Journal of
Applied Management Science, Complex & Intelligent Systems,
Computers in
Industry, Asia Mathematika, Entrepreneurship and
Sustainability Issues,
Design Automation for Embedded Systems, Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy
Systems, Granular Computing,
Journal of
Medical Systems (Springer), Management and Informatics,
Zentralblatt Für Mathematik (Germany; *
reviewer*),* *Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde (Holland), Advances
in Fuzzy Sets and Systems, International Journal of Social Economics,
Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, **
International Journal of Applied Mathematics, International Journal of
Tomography & Statistics (editor), International Journal of Applied
Mathematics and Statistics (Editor-in-Chief 2005-2006), International
Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Gaceta Matematica (Spain),
Intelligencer (Gottingen, Germany); Humanistic Mathematics Network
Journal, Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Progress in Physics
(Associate editor), Infinite Energy (USA),
Information &
Security: An International Journal, InterStat - Statistics on
the Internet (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, USA), American Mathematical Monthly, Mathematics Magazine,
Journal of Advances in Information Fusion (JAIF), Advances and
Applications in Statistics, Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics,
Notices of the American Mathematical Society, Critical Review (Society
for Mathematics of Uncertainty, Creighton University - USA), New
Mathematics and Natural Computing (World Scientific), Bulletin of
Statistics & Economics, International Journal of Artificial
Intelligence, The Icfai University Journal of Physics, Hadronic Journal
(USA), Studii si Cercetari Stiintifice (University of Bacau, Romania;
associate editor), International Journal of Applied Mathematics and
Statistics, Roorkee, India, (editor-in-chief 2005-2006?);
Journal of Computer
Science and Technology, Symmetry (Basel, Switzerland),
Pakistan Journal of Statistics & Operational Research, International
Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics, International Journal of
Geometry, Studies in Logic Grammar and Rhetoric (Belarus),
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research (GJSFR)
[USA, UK, India], Int. J. Advanced Mechatronic Systems (Inderscience
Publishers), Applied Mechanics and Materials (Trans Tech Publications,
Switzerland), etc.
and on many IEEE International Conference Proceedings.
Some of them can be downloaded from the LANL / Cornell University and the CERN web sites.**

**
During the Ceausescu's era he got in conflict with authorities. In 1986
he did the hunger strike for being refused to attend the International
Congress of Mathematicians at the University of Berkeley, then published
a letter in the Notices of the American Mathematical Society for the
freedom of circulating of scientists, and became a dissident. As a
consequence, he remained unemployed for almost two years, living from
private tutoring done to students. The Swedish Royal Academy Foreign
Secretary Dr. Olof G. Tandberg contacted him
by telephone from Bucharest. **

Not being allowed to publish, he tried to get his manuscripts out of the
country through the French School of Bucharest and tourists, but for
many of them he lost track.

Escaped from Romania in September 1988 and waited almost two years in
the political refugee camps of Turkey, where he did unskilled works in
construction in order to survive: scavenger, house painter,
whetstoner. Here he kept in touch with the
French Cultural Institutes that facilitated him the access to books and
rencontres with personalities.

Before leaving the country he buried some of his manuscripts in a metal
box in his parents vineyard, near a peach
tree, that he retrieved four years later, after the 1989 Revolution,
when he returned for the first time to his native country. Other
manuscripts, that he tried to mail to a
translator in France, were confiscated by the secret police and never
returned.

He wrote hundreds of pages of diary about his life in the Romanian
dictatorship (unpublished), as a cooperative teacher in Morocco
("Professor in Africa", 1999), in the Turkish refugee camp ("Escaped...
/ Diary From the Refugee Camp", Vol. I, II,
1994, 1998), and in the American exile - diary which is still going on.

But he's internationally known as the literary school leader for the "paradoxism"
movement which has many advocates in the world, that he set up in 1980,
based on an excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions,
paradoxes (
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SmarandacheParadox.html )in creation - both at the small level and the entire
level of the work - making an interesting connection between
mathematics, philosophy, and literature [
http://fs.unm.edu/a/paradoxism.htm ].

He introduced the 'paradoxist distich', 'tautologic
distich', and 'dualistic distich', 'paradoxist quatrain' etc. inspired
from the mathematical logic

**
[ **
**
http://fs.unm.edu/a/literature.htm ].**

Literary experiments he realized in his dramas: Country of the Animals,
where there is no dialogue!, and An
Upside-Down World, where the scenes are permuted to give birth to one
billion of billions of distinct dramas!

[
http://fs.unm.edu/a/theatre.htm ].

He stated:

"Paradoxism started as an anti-totalitarian
protest against a closed society, where the whole culture was
manipulated by a small group. Only their ideas and publications counted.
We couldn't publish almost anything.

Then, I said: Let's do literature... without doing literature! Let's
write... without actually writing anything. How? Simply:
literature-object! 'The flight of a bird', for example, represents a
"natural poem", that is not necessary to write down, being more palpable
and perceptible in any language that some signs laid on the paper,
which, in fact, represent an "artificial poem": deformed, resulted from
a translation by the observant of the observed, and by translation one
falsifies.

Therefore, a mute protest we did!

Later, I based it on contradictions. Why? Because we lived in that
society a double life: an official one - propagated by the political
system, and another one real. In mass-media it was promulgated that 'our
life is wonderful', but in reality 'our life was miserable'. The paradox
flourishing! And then we took the creation in derision, in inverse
sense, in a syncretic way. Thus the paradoxism
was born. The folk jokes, at great fashion in Ceausescu's 'Epoch', as an
intellectual breathing, were superb springs.

The "No" and "Anti" from my paradoxist
manifestos had a creative character, not at all nihilistic."
Paradoxism, following the line of Dadaism,
Lettrism, absurd theater, is a kind of
up-side down writings!

In 1992 he was invited speaker in Brazil (Universidad do Blumenau,
etc.).

He did many poetical experiments within his avant-garde and published
paradoxist manifestos: "Le
Sens du Non-Sens"
(http://fs.unm.edu/LeSensDuNonsens.pdf, 1983), "Anti-chambres/Antipoesies/Bizarreries" (http://fs.unm.edu/Antichambres.pdf, 1984, 1989), "NonPoems"
(http://fs.unm.edu/NonPoems.pdf, 1990), changing the French and respectively English linguistics clich
s. While "Paradoxist Distiches" (http://fs.unm.edu/ParadoxistDistiches.pdf, 1998)
introduces new species of poetry with fixed form.

Eventually he edited fourteen International Anthologies on
Paradoxism (2000-2004) with texts from about
350 writers from around the world in many languages.

"MetaHistory" (1993) is a theatrical trilogy
against the totalitarianism again, with dramas that experiment towards a
total theater: "Formation of the New Man", "An Upside - Down World",
"The Country of the Animals". The last drama, that pioneers no dialogue
on the stage, was awarded at the International Theatrical Festival of
Casablanca (1995).

He translated them into English as "A Trilogy in
pARadOXisM: avant-garde political dramas"; and they were
published by ZayuPress (2004).

"Trickster's Famous Deeds" (http://fs.unm.edu/Trickster.htm, 1994, auto-translated into English 2000),
theatrical trilogy for children, mixes the Romanian folk tradition with
modern and SF situations.

His first novel is called "NonNovel" (http://fs.unm.edu/NonNovel.pdf, 1993)
and satirizes the dictatorship in a gloomy way, by various styles and
artifice within one same style.

"Faulty Writings" (1997) is a collection of short stories and prose
within paradoxism, bringing hybrid elements
from rebus and science into literature.

His experimental albums "Outer-Art" (Vol. I, 2000 & Vol. II: The Worst
Possible Art in the World!, 2003) comprises
over-paintings, non-paintings, anti-drawings, super-photos, foreseen
with a manifesto: "Ultra-Modernism?" and "Anti-manifesto"

[
http://fs.unm.edu/a/oUTER-aRT.htm ].

Art was for Dr. Smarandache a hobby. He did:

- graphic arts for his published volumes of verse: "Anti-chambres/
Anti-poesies/
Bizarreries" (mechanical drawings), "NonPoems"
(paradoxist drawings), "Dark Snow" &
"Circles of light" (covers);

- paradoxist collages for the "Anthology of
the Paradoxist Literary Movement", by J. -M.
Levenard, I. Rotaru,
A. Skemer;

- covers and illustrations of books, published by "Dorul"
Publ. Hse., Aalborg, Denmark;

- illustrations in the journal: "Dorul" (Aalborg,
Denmark).

Many of his art works are held in "The Florentin
Smarandache Papers" Special Collections at the Arizona State
University, Tempe, and Texas State University, Austin (USA), also in the
National Archives of Valcea and Romanian
Literary Museum (Romania), and in the Musee
de Bergerac (France).

Twelve books were published that analyze his literary creation, among
them: "Paradoxism's Aesthetics" by
Titu Popescu
(1995), and "Paradoxism and Postmodernism"
by Ion Soare (2000).

He was nominated by the Academia DacoRomana
from Bucharest for the 2011 Nobel Prize in Literature for his 75
published literary books.

Hundreds of articles, books, and reviews have been written about his
activity around the world. The books can be downloaded from this

Digital Library of Science:
**
http://fs.unm.edu/ScienceLibrary.htm ****
**

and from the Digital Library of Arts and Letters:
http://fs.unm.edu/LiteratureLibrary.htm .

As a Globe Trekker he visited 61 countries [
http://fs.unm.edu/TravelMemories.htm ] that he wrote about in
his memories. In 2015 he went to an expedition in Antarctica and in 2018
to the Polar Circle (Greenland) [see his
Photo Gallery at:
**http://fs.unm.edu/photo/GlobeTrekker.html**** ]. **

**
International Conferences:**

First International Conference on Smarandache
Type Notions in Number Theory,

August 21-24, 1997, organized by Dr. C. Dumitrescu
& Dr. V. Seleacu, University of Craiova,
Romania.

International Conference on Smarandache
Geometries, May 3-5 2003, organized by Dr. M.
Khoshnevisan, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland,
Australia.

International Conference on Smarandache
Algebraic Structures, December 17-19, 2004, organized by Prof. M. Mary
John, Mathematics Department Chair, Loyola College, Madras, Chennai -
600 034 Tamil Nadu, India.

**
***[Presentation by
Mihaly Bencze, Octogon]
*

[
**En espanol** ]

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